Laser Treatment

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Ear piercing

Ear piercings are discreet and very common, which makes them a good choice for your first piercing.
If you're considering getting your ears pierced and have never done it before, you probably have a few unanswered questions about it.

Ear piercing

Here's everything you need to know so you can know what to expect and get your piercing done right.
One of the biggest worries people have about their first piercing is whether it will hurt.
Every piercing comes with some degree of pain. Still, the good news is that ear piercings are some of the least painful ones you can get.

Nose piercing

Nose piercing entails puncturing a person's nose cartilage so they can wear jewelry such as a nose piercing stud or ring. If you want to know everything about this beautiful fashion statement, don't stop reading.

Nose piercing

Types of nose piercings

Nose piercing types depend on the part of your nose you choose to pierce. The seven types that are most popular are:

  • Septum piercings
  • Nostril piercing
  • High nostril piercing
  • Vertical tip piercing
  • Bridge or surface piercing
  • Nasallang piercing
  • Septril piercing

Before you settle on the type of nose piercing you want, make sure that you first do your research. Once you know exactly what you want, you can shop for the right jewelry that will fit your piercing.

Scar revision

Scar revision surgery improves the appearance of a scar. Scar revision surgery may involve relocating a scar. Most people seek scar revision surgery for cosmetic reasons. Scar revision surgery is sometimes medically necessary to restore function of the affected body part or to relieve symptoms, such as pain.

Scar removal

Scar revision surgery has risks and potential complications. You may have less invasive treatment options. Consider getting a second opinion about all of your treatment choices before having scar revision surgery.

Types of scar revision surgeries

  • Punch graft involves punching out a core of skin containing the scar and filling it with a core of unscarred skin from another area. Punch grafts are especially useful for small, deep scars such as acne scars.
  • Scar excision involves cutting out the scar and closing the incision. A new scar will form, but it should be less visible than the original scar.
  • Z or W-plasty involves cutting a series of triangular flaps through the scar in a 'Z' or 'W' pattern. This can reposition the new scar into natural creases or relieve a contracted scar by cutting across fibrous tissue.

Mole removal

Moles are frequently removed for a variety of reasons. They can be removed by two surgical methods, excision (cutting), with or without stitches; and shave removal using a scalpel blade without stitches.

Mole removal

Although laser excision has been tried for moles, it is not the method of choice for most deep moles because the laser light doesn't penetrate deeply enough, and there is no tissue remaining to examine pathologically.
Typically, the dermatologist (a skin specialist) may choose excision with or without stitches, depending on the depth of the mole and the type of cosmetic outcome desired.
Many people refer to a mole as any dark spot or irregularity in the skin. Doctors use different terms. But the following types of skin marks such as these are not treated the same way moles are and are not discussed here, and include birthmarks, abnormal formations of blood vessels (hemangiomas), and keratoses (benign or precancerous spots, which appear after about age 30 years).
Some people are born with moles. Other moles appear later in life. Sun exposure seems to play a role in the development of moles and may even play a role in the development of atypical, or dysplastic, moles.
The role of heredity cannot be overemphasized. Many families have a type of mole known as dysplastic (atypical), which can be associated with a higher frequency of melanoma.

Wart excision

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HPV can cause genital warts and cancers of the anus, cervix, mouth and throat, penis, vagina, and vulva. The HPV vaccines protect against infection from certain types of HPV, however, they do not get rid of the infection once it has occurred.

Wart  extraction

Visible genital warts on the penis or vagina or around the anus are removed by excision, which means cutting the warts off with a surgical knife (scalpel). Warts on the cervix may be removed by laser or loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP).
The procedure is usually done in a doctor's office or clinic or an outpatient surgery centre. You receive medicine that numbs the area around the warts (local anesthetic). Stitches (sutures) usually close the incisions.

Earlobe repair

Earlobe repair is a simple surgical procedure to fix injured, torn or abnormally shaped earlobes. It can also restore earlobes that have been stretched due to plugs or gauges. It can be performed as a standalone procedure or in conjunction with otoplasty (traditional ear reshaping).

Ear lobe repair

Candidates for Earlobe Repair

Candidates for earlobe repair may have been born with excessively large or small earlobes. More commonly, candidates develop injuries in the earlobe due to earrings. For example, a heavy, long or threaded earring causes the hole from the piercing to stretch and elongate. An earring can get caught or pulled on something (sometimes while sleeping in earrings), causing the piercing hole in the earlobe to tear. In some cases, this laceration can tear through to the lower edge of the earlobe. Other candidates may experience an earlobe injury during a botched piercing.

Keloid treatment

These are thick, rounded, irregular clusters of scar tissue that grow at the site of a wound on the skin, but beyond the edges of the borders of the wound. They often appear red or darker in color, as compared to the surrounding normal skin. Keloids are formed from collagen that the body produces after a wound has healed.


These scars may appear anywhere on the body. Treatment for keloid scars varies. There is no one simple cure for keloid scars. Recurrence after treatment is common. Treatment may include the following:

  • Steroids are injected directly into the scar tissue to help decrease the itching, redness, and burning sensations that these scars may produce. Sometimes, the injections help to actually decrease the size of the scar.
  • Cryotherapy involves the scar being "frozen" off by a medication.
  • Pressure therapy involves a type of pressure appliance worn over the area of the scar. These may be worn day and night for up to four to six months.
  • If the keloid scar is not responsive to nonsurgical management options, surgery may be performed. One type of surgery directly removes the scar formation with an incision, and stitches are placed to help close the wound. Sometimes, skin grafts are used to help close the wound. This involves replacing or attaching skin to an area that is missing skin. Skin grafts are performed by taking a piece of healthy skin from another area of the body (called the donor site) and attaching it to the needed area. Another option is laser surgery. Scars may be treated with a variety of different lasers, depending on the underlying cause of the scar. Lasers may be used to smooth a scar, remove the abnormal color of a scar, or flatten a scar. Most laser therapy for scars is done in conjunction with other treatments, including injections of steroids, use of special dressings, and the use of bandages. Multiple treatments may be required, regardless of the initial type of therapy.


Liposuction is a surgical procedure that uses a suction technique to remove fat from specific areas of the body, such as the abdomen, hips, thighs, buttocks, arms or neck. Liposuction also shapes (contours) these areas. Other names for liposuction include lipoplasty and body contouring.


Liposuction isn't typically considered an overall weight-loss method or a weight-loss alternative. If you're overweight, you're likely to lose more weight through diet and exercise or through bariatric procedures - such as gastric bypass surgery - than you would with liposuction.
You may be a candidate for liposuction if you have too much body fat in specific spots but otherwise have a stable body weight.

Why it's done

Liposuction is used to remove fat from areas of the body that haven't responded to diet and exercise, such as the:

  • Abdomen
  • Upper arms
  • Buttocks
  • Calves and ankles
  • Chest and back
  • Hips and thighs
  • Chin and neck

In addition, liposuction can sometimes be used for breast reduction or treatment of gynecomastia.

Tummy tuck

Abdominoplasty or "tummy tuck" is a cosmetic surgery procedure used to make the abdomen thinner and more firm. The surgery involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen in order to tighten the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall. This type of surgery is usually sought by patients with loose or sagging tissues after pregnancy or major weight loss.

Tummy tuck


Abdominoplasty operations vary in scope and are frequently subdivided into categories. Depending on the extent of the surgery, a complete abdominoplasty can take from 1 to 5 hours. A partial abdominoplasty (mini-tuck abdominoplasty) can be completed between 1 and 2 hours.


The upper portion of the structure of the nose is bone, and the lower portion is cartilage. Rhinoplasty can change bone, cartilage, skin or all three. Talk with your surgeon about whether rhinoplasty is appropriate for you and what it can achieve.


When planning rhinoplasty, your surgeon will consider your other facial features, the skin on your nose and what you would like to change. If you're a candidate for surgery, your surgeon will develop a customized plan for you.
Sometimes part or all of a rhinoplasty is covered by insurance.

Why it's done?

Rhinoplasty can change the size, shape or proportions of your nose. It may be done to repair deformities from an injury, correct a birth defect or improve some breathing difficulties.
As with any major surgery, rhinoplasty carries risks such as:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • An adverse reaction to the anesthesia

Female breast surgery

Breast surgery is performed to enhance the appearance, size, and contour of a woman's breasts. Women consider breast surgery for many different reasons. Some women feel their breasts are too small. Some desire surgery after their breasts change after pregnancy. Others desire to correct an asymmetry in breast size.

Female breast surgery

Breast surgery is performed with implants (see below) that can be placed under a chest muscle or over a chest muscle. The incision can be placed in the axilla (armpit), areola (the area surrounding the nipple), or lower breast fold. In general, all breast surgeries are minimally invasive procedures. For surgeries in which the incision is made in the armpit, an endoscope (thin tube with a small camera and light) may be used during the procedure.
Breast surgery is a relatively straightforward procedure. As with any surgery, some uncertainty and risk are expected. Know your concerns and expectations. Review the benefits, risks, and alternatives. Seek consultation with a board certified plastic surgeon.
Modern laser augmentation can be done by for interruption from liposuction of body for from unwanted areas.

Breast Reduction Surgery

Reduction mammoplasty (also breast reduction and reduction mammaplasty) is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts. In a breast reduction surgery for re-establishing a functional bust that is proportionate to the woman's body, the critical corrective consideration is the tissue viability of the nipple–areola complex (NAC), to ensure the functional sensitivity and lactational capability of the breasts. The indications for breast reduction surgery are three-fold – physical, aesthetic, and psychological – the restoration of the bust, of the woman's self-image, and of her mental health.

Male breast surgery

You don't have to let gynecomastia keep you from feeling your most confident. With the help of a skilled, qualified cosmetic surgeon, you can restore a naturally masculine appearance to your chest. Today's advanced techniques allow for a short surgery, quick recovery, and virtually invisible scars. Learn more about male breast reduction surgery below.


What is a Male Breast Reduction?

A male breast reduction is the most effective known treatment for gynecomastia, or enlarged male breasts. This cosmetic surgery procedure removes excess fat and glandular tissue to restore a flatter, firmer and more masculine contour to the chest.
Due to genetics, use of certain medications, or other unspecified reasons, some men develop the appearance of enlarged breasts. It is estimated that up to 50% of men in the United States experience some degree of gynecomastia during their lifetime. Gynecomastia can present at any age, and male breast reduction can be performed safely and successfully on teenagers and adult men alike.

Chemical peels

A chemical peel is a technique used to improve the appearance of the skin on the face, neck or hands. A chemical solution is applied to the skin that causes it to exfoliate and eventually peel off. The new, regenerated skin is usually smoother and less wrinkled than the old skin. The new skin is also temporarily more sensitive to the sun. There are three basic types of chemical peels,

Chemical peel
  • Superficial or lunchtime peel: Alpha-hydroxy acid or another mild acid is used to penetrate only the outer layer of skin to gently exfoliate it. The treatment is used to improve the appearance of mild skin discoloration and rough skin as well as to refresh the face, neck, chest or hands.
  • Medium peel: Glycolic or trichloroacetic acid is applied to penetrate the out and middle layers of skin to remove damaged skin cells. The treatment is used to improve age spots, fine lines and wrinkles, freckles and moderate skin discoloration. It also can be used to smooth rough skin and treat some precancerous skin growths, i.e. actinic keratosis.
  • Deep peel: Trichloroacetic acid or phenol is applied to deeply penetrate the middle layer of skin to remove damaged skin cells. The treatment removes moderate lines, age spots, freckles and shallow scars. Patients will see a dramatic improvement in skin appearance.


Many people have heard of this miraculous treatment for wrinkles and expression lines, but what is Botox? It is actually the trade name for a substance injected into the skin which is known to inhibit muscle movement and prevent wrinkles developing or worsening.


How does Botox work?

Botox treatment works by blocking the nerve signals to the affected muscles around the injection site. The muscles become more relaxed and their activity is reduced, in turn reducing the effects on the skin such as lines.


if you're thinking about getting them or have heard them mentioned and want to know more, then read this comprehensive overview of the cosmetic procedure that are designed to help diminish the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles and other visible signs of aging.


What are dermal fillers?

Dermal fillers are small injections of gel, typically made up of hyaluronic acid, that fill in wrinkles and add volume to soft tissue. You can have dermal fillers in different parts of your face: around the eye, cheeks, mouth and jawline, as well as lip fillers administered directly into the lip tissue.

How do they work?

Fillers basically restore lost volume to your face and plump areas, so that deep set lines are smoothed. Why is this needed? Well, as we get older our bodies stop producing collagen and elastin, both of which contribute to the youthful look. Experts argue over when we start losing collagen; but the generally agreed age is 25. Which is pretty young, right? Your collagen and elastin levels then decline at a rate of about 2% per year, and your body will have stopped producing it altogether by your late twenties.

Thread lifts

Until recently, the only way to address problems caused by facial skin laxity-such as jowls and drooping cheeks-was facelift surgery. After all, while skin resurfacing treatments can help to restore some degree of firmness, once loose skin is present, only a scalpel can truly remove it. However, while the approach of relying on injectable compounds and skin resurfacing until facelift surgery becomes absolutely necessary works for many patients, not everyone is willing or able to have surgery. If you're in this group, you'll be happy to know that a new type of procedure has been developed to fill in the gap between noninvasive facial rejuvenation.

Thread lift

What is a thread lift?

A thread lift is a type of procedure wherein temporary sutures are used to produce a subtle but visible 'lift' in the skin. Instead of removing the patient's loose facial skin surgically, the cosmetic surgeon simply suspends it by stitching up portions of it. This has the effect of pulling the skin back slightly and therefore lifting and tightening the face. In addition to being ideal for lifting the skin, threads combat aging in another way: by provoking the body's 'healing response' and causing the body to direct large surges of collagen to treated areas. This is important because of the vital role collagen plays in the aging process.
Collagen helps support 'growth factors' that greatly influences the condition of our skin. In addition to being used for wound healing, collagen helps to keep our skin strong, voluminous and supple. As we get older, our bodies gradually produce less and less collagen, which leads to an 80% reduction in skin thickness by about age 70. This loss of volume and strength is a large factor in the creation of excess skin and wrinkles. As the skin grows weaker, it's no longer able to support the tissues beneath it adequately, meaning that gravity pulls it downwards and stretches it. Infusing the skin of the face with fresh collagen when the signs of skin laxity are still mild can help to both reduce looseness (by thickening and hydrating the skin) and prevent it from getting worse (by strengthening the skin).


Microneedling is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that's used to treat skin concerns via collagen production. Also known as collagen induction therapy, this treatment may help those looking to reduce the appearance of acne scars and stretch marks.

Micro needling

It's also used in certain anti-aging procedures, such as eyelid surgery and sun spots. Microneedling isn't effective for hair loss, despite the possible role of collagen in hair growth.
You may be an ideal candidate for this procedure if you're in good health and have certain skin concerns that haven't responded to home treatments or other types of dermatologic procedures, such as peels.
This may also be a final step before considering cosmetic surgery for anti-aging and other concerns. Learn more about microneedling and talk to your dermatologist to see if this is the right option for your skin.


Radio-frequency skin tightening is an aesthetic technique that uses radio frequency (RF) energy to heat skin with the purpose of stimulating cutaneous collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid production in order to reduce the appearance of fine lines and loose skin. The technique induces tissue remodeling and production of new collagen and elastin. The process provides an alternative to facelift and other cosmetic surgeries.

radio frequency

By manipulating skin cooling during treatment, RF can also be used for heating and reduction of fat. Currently, the most common uses of RF-based devices are to noninvasively manage and treat skin tightening of lax skin (including sagging jowls, abdomen, thighs, and arms), as well as wrinkle reduction, cellulite improvement, and body contouring.


Everybody craves a full and natural head of hair, but for many of us there comes a point in life where hair loss becomes an aesthetic issue. However, this does not have to be a problem, at least not anymore. Our FUE hair transplantation offers a solution to hair loss with permanent results and without leaving any visible scars.


These are the benefits of FUE hair transplant procedure:

  • Permanent results of natural hair growth
  • Painless and without any scars
  • Quick recovery
  • Regrowth rate of 95% and higher

What is FUE hair transplant?

FUE, or follicular unit extraction, is a surgical hair transplant technique which uses advanced microsurgical techniques to restore natural hair growth. Our experienced physician extracts individual follicular units and artistically restores them to the targeted area, in order to restore hair growth. Thanks to our unique microsurgical method, the FUE hair transplant does not produce any visible scars.
For this minimally invasive treatment, our experts use nothing but sub 1 mm instruments (so no scalpels). This means the healing is much faster than any other hair transplantation method available today. The entire treatment is carried out under a local anesthetic, which makes the procedure completely painless. You can return home right after the treatment.
Our team consists out of experienced full-time hair restoration professionals only. Therefore we can guarantee consistent and natural looking results with regrowth rates of 95% and higher.


In the FUT procedure, a strip of hair-bearing skin is removed from the donor area of the scalp, usually the back of the head. This is why FUT is also known as 'strip' surgery.


The long-term donor hair supply will be influenced by how loose (or lax) the scalp skin is and by how many hairs there are per square centimeter of donor scalp. Generally speaking, the FUT procedure gives access to a greater donor hair yield during a lifetime compared with FUE.
The strip is then placed under high-powered microscopes and the surgical team meticulously divides it into tiny grafts of individual follicular units comprised of one to four hairs. These grafts are placed in a chilled tissue storage solution until they are transplanted.
The donor area is stitched up and usually then covered by the surrounding hair. After between 10 and 14 days the stitches are removed and the donor area heals to form a linear scar.

Advantages of FUT:

Good for patients requiring a large number of grafts - FUT typically provides a higher yield of hair than FUE - an advantage if the patient's main goal is to achieve maximum fullness from the hair restoration.
No need to shave the whole head - With the FUT technique existing hair can be kept long -and indeed will be used to cover up the linear scar.
Shorter time in surgery - The FUT process usually takes between 4 and 12 hours depending on the size of the recipient area and the number of grafts that need to be transplanted. This is significantly shorter than FUE, which can require extracting up to 2,000 grafts and might take 10 hours - or in some cases might need more than one day in surgery.
Lower cost - FUT is often less expensive than an equivalent FUE procedure.
Both FUT and FUE procedures are virtually painless and require only a local anesthesia.


PRP means Platelet rich plasma therapy.
Platelets are packed with growth factors and healing proteins that initiate repair and regrowth.


In this procedure, a small amount of patient's own blood is withdrawn and centrifuged to separate platelets from blood and is then injected into the scalp, face or wound using micro needles.
PRP is a nonsurgical ,natural and safe method for hair restoration and promote hair growth. It is used to hair loss or hair thinning to give fuller and healthy hair.
PRP also is very effective for facial lines, wrinkles and under eye puffiness.
In Mahani Skin Clinic PRP procedure is performed in absolutely aseptic and sterile environment making the procedure very safe and comfortable for the patient.

Hair reduction

Laser hair removal is a medical procedure that uses a concentrated beam of light (laser) to remove unwanted hair.

Our doctors

During laser hair removal, a laser emits a light that is absorbed by the pigment (melanin) in the hair. The light energy is converted to heat, which damages the tube-shaped sacs within the skin (hair follicles) that produce hairs. This damage inhibits or delays future hair growth.
Although laser hair removal effectively delays hair growth for long periods, it usually doesn't result in permanent hair removal. Multiple laser hair removal treatments are needed for initial hair removal, and maintenance treatments might be needed as well. Laser hair removal is most effective for people who have light skin and dark hair.

Why it's done?

Laser hair removal is used to reduce unwanted hair. Common treatment locations include legs, armpits, upper lip, chin and the bikini line. However, it's possible to treat unwanted hair in nearly any area, except the eyelid or surrounding area.
Hair color and skin type influence the success of laser hair removal. The basic principle is that the pigment of the hair, but not the pigment of the skin, should absorb the light. The laser should damage only the hair follicle while avoiding damage to the skin. Therefore, a contrast between hair and skin color - dark hair and light skin - results in the best outcomes.

Acne scars

Acne scars are usually the result of inflamed blemishes caused by skin pores engorged with excess oil, dead skin cells and bacteria. The pore swells, causing a break in the follicle wall. Shallow lesions are usually minor and heal quickly. But if there is a deep break in the wall of the pore, infected material can spill out into surrounding tissue, creating deeper lesions. The skin attempts to repair these lesions by forming new collagen fibers. These repairs usually aren't as smooth and flawless as the original skin.

Acne scar

Why treat acne scarring?

Physical, emotional and social reasons for treating acne scars include:

  • Improved appearance
  • Enhanced self-esteem
  • Promotion of better skin health

What is Pigmentation?

Pigmentation is a discoloration of skin due to excess generation of a pigment known as melanin.
Causes of skin pigmentation are inflammation, injury, hormones, genetics or use of excessive abrasive products on skin.


Some pigmentation are present since birth like nevi, while some can appear at a later age like melasma and freckles.
Most of the pigmentation are superficial that is at the epidermal level. However some spots like nevi and certain dermatological conditions are deep seated at the dermis level.
Usage of sunscreen as protective measure plays a vital role in the treatment of these pigmented spots.
Brightening serum and depigmenting creams help in reduction of these pigmentation as recommended by Dermatologists. Laser and chemical peel help in the faster recovery of these marks as they target deep seated pigments like melanin.

What are Stretch marks?

Stretch marks also known as Striae distensae is a very common Dermatological condition treated in skin clinics.
Here because of excessive stretching of skin that happens because of rapid gain or loss in weight results in disruption of collagen fibres in dermis and hence the appearance of broken skin picture.

Stretch marks

Stretch marks are best prevented especially in pregnancy where proper oil massage during abdomen stretching will help in reduction of occurrence of stretch marks.
However once appeared, aggressive treatment with topical retinoids and alpha hydroxy acids in combination with Microneedling Radiofrequency(MnRf) will give good results in its reduction. MnRf uses microneedling technique of delivery of Radiofrequency waves into the dermis which causes remodeling of collagen fibers and hence better appearance of stretch marks. This procedure when clubbed with PRP, gives more effective results. Though stretch marks treatment needs multiple sittings, the results post procedure are satisfactory.

What is Tattoo removal?

Tattoo removal is a procedure done to remove an unwanted tattoo. Common techniques used for tattoo removal include laser surgery, surgical removal and dermabrasion.
Tattoo ink is placed beneath the top layer of the skin. That makes tattoo removal more complicated - and expensive - than the original tattoo application.

Tatoo removal

If you're interested in tattoo removal, consult a skin doctor (dermatologist) about the options. Don't attempt tattoo removal on your own. Do-it-yourself tattoo removal creams and other home treatments aren't likely to be effective and can cause skin irritation or other reactions.

Why it's done?

You might consider tattoo removal if you regret a tattoo or you're unhappy with the appearance of your tattoo. Perhaps the tattoo has faded or blurred, or you decide that the tattoo doesn't fit your current image.
Tattoo removal might also be important if you develop an allergic reaction to the tattoo or other complications, such as an infection.

How you prepare

If you're considering tattoo removal, consult a dermatologist. He or she can explain the options for tattoo removal and help you choose the method that's most likely to be effective for your tattoo.
For example, some tattoo inks are more responsive to laser treatment than are others. Likewise, small tattoos might be good candidates for surgical removal, while others are simply too large to remove with a scalpel.

What's an Acne?

Acne also known as pimples, is a skin condition that develops when the oil producing glands are blocked. The main cause being excess of hormones as androgens.

Acne scar

Most commonly pimples are seen on face, neck, shoulders and chest. If left untreated acne can cause scarring.

Instructions when there is a breakout:

  • not to squeeze pimples.

  • Using antibacterial cleansers and astringents.

  • Avoidance of sun exposure.

  • Medical management with oral and topical antibiotics will effectively reduce acne. Chemical peels helps in reducing the oil production on face with faster recovery.

What's a Skin allergy?

A skin allergy is an allergic reaction to a typically harmless substance, such as wool, pollen, soap, or plants. The immune system reacts to this trigger and attacks to remove it from the body. The result is an allergic skin rash, which tends to be red and itchy. Skin allergies encompass a number of allergic conditions, such as eczema, contact dermatitis, and hives.


A skin rash is the primary symptom of an allergic skin reaction. The rash may start as an itching sensation, a raised bump, or redness, and you might ultimately experience any combination of:

raised bumps
Raised Bumps
Scaling or flaking of skin
Cracked skin


A skin allergy is caused by contact with a trigger. The immune system responds, causing a rash. Triggers that can lead to skin allergy include:

  • Latex
  • Pet dander
  • Poison ivy or poison oak
  • Cold or hot temperatures
  • Laundry detergent
  • Soap
  • Nickel
  • Chemicals
  • Insect
  • Pollen
  • Sunlight
  • Water
  • Food
  • Drugs

What's a Fungal infection?

Fungal infections are common throughout much of the natural world. In humans, fungal infections occur when an invading fungus takes over an area of the body and is too much for the immune system to handle.
Fungi can live in the air, soil, water, and plants. There are also some fungi that live naturally in the human body.

Fungal infections

Like many microbes, there are helpful fungi and harmful fungi. When harmful fungi invade the body, they can be difficult to kill, as they can survive in the environment and re-infect the person trying to get better. In this article, we take a look at who is most at risk of getting a fungal infection and what the symptoms and treatment options are for some common types.


The symptoms of a fungal infection will depend on the type, but common symptoms include the following:

  • Skin changes, including red and possibly cracking or peeling skin.

  • Itching.

What's an Eczema?

Eczema is an inflammation of the skin characterized by reddening, swelling, bumps and crusting, followed by thickening and scaling. It is also referred to as dermatitis.


Symptoms & Causes:

Doctors do not know the exact cause of eczema, according to Jackie Suver, a skin-care expert and esthetician at MD Dermatology in Maryland. The current thinking is that it is triggered by a combination of factors, including genetics. People are more at risk of developing eczema if they have relatives with eczema, asthma, or seasonal allergies, she said.
Environmental factors, such as low humidity, can make the skin dry and itchy, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Contact with harsh soaps, chemicals, perfumes and skin care products that contain fragrance or alcohol may irritate the skin, as will some fabrics, such as wool, and tight clothing.
According to the National Eczema Association, symptoms include:

  • Dry, sensitive skin

  • Red, inflamed skin

  • Intense itching

  • Scaly areas

  • Recurring rash

  • Oozing and crusting

  • Rough, leathery patches

  • Swelling

  • Dark-colored patches of skin

What's a Vitiligo?

Vitiligo (vit-ill-EYE-go) is a disorder in which white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body. This happens because the cells that make pigment (color) in the skin are destroyed. These cells are called melanocytes (ma-LAN-o-sites). Vitiligo can also affect the mucous membranes (such as the tissue inside the mouth and nose) and the eye.

  • Vitiligo is a disease in which the pigment cells of the skin, skin fading, melanocytes, are destroyed in certain areas.

  • Symptoms and signs of vitiligo include loss of skin color in the form of depigmented, or white, patches of skin in any location on the body.

  • Vitiligo can be focal and localized to one area, or it may affect several different areas on the body.

  • The exact cause of vitiligo is unknown, although most experts believe that it is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys certain cells within the body.

  • Most people who have vitiligo will develop the condition prior to age 40; about half develop it before age 20.

  • Vitiligo may have a genetic component, as the condition tends to run in families.

  • Vitiligo is sometimes associated with other medical conditions, including thyroid dysfunction.

  • There is no way to determine if vitiligo will spread or remain confined to one location.

What causes vitiligo?

The cause is not known. Vitiligo may be an autoimmune disease. These diseases happen when your immune system mistakenly attacks some part of your own body. In vitiligo, the immune system may destroy the melanocytes in the skin. It is also possible that one or more genes may make a person more likely to get the disorder.
Some researchers think that the melanocytes destroy themselves. Others think that a single event such as sunburn or emotional distress can cause vitiligo. But these events have not been proven to cause vitiligo.

What's a Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a skin disorder that causes skin cells to multiply up to 10 times faster than normal. This makes the skin build up into bumpy red patches covered with white scales. They can grow anywhere, but most appear on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. Psoriasis can't be passed from person to person. It does sometimes happen in members of the same family.


Psoriasis usually appears in early adulthood. For most people, it affects just a few areas. In severe cases, psoriasis can cover large parts of the body. The patches can heal and then come back throughout a person's life.


The symptoms of psoriasis vary depending on the type you have. Some common symptoms for plaque psoriasis  (the most common variety of the condition)  include:

  • Plaques of red skin, often covered with silver-colored scales. These plaques may be itchy and painful, and they sometimes crack and bleed. In severe cases, the plaques will grow and merge, covering large areas.

  • Disorders of the fingernails and toenails, including discoloration and pitting of the nails. The nails may also crumble or detach from the nail bed.

  • Plaques of scales or crust on the scalp.

People with psoriasis can also get a type of arthritis called psoriatic arthritis. It causes pain and swelling in the joints. The National Psoriasis Foundation estimates that between 10% to 30% of people with psoriasis also have psoriatic arthritis.

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Consult our Surgeons & Dermatologists

Book an appointment and consult our dermatologists & plastic surgeons. Understand the problem and procedures in detail. We believe in giving sufficient time to our patients and help them make the right decision.